Ultraviolet Rays as a Method of Disinfection

Ultraviolet Rays as a Method of Disinfection

Many researchers and companies are investigating the use of UVC to serve as a method of disinfecting items exposed to a virus. Researchers need instruments that can aid in the development of these technologies and help accurately measure the results of their findings.

Instrument Systems NVIS

NVIS (Night Vision Imaging Systems) Measurement of Displays in Aircraft

Military aircraft cockpits are full of a vast array of light emitting devices and display panels. Proper and balanced light emission of all devices is vital to the pilot, so they may read the information from the devices. When flying at night, a pilot will wear NVIS (Night Vision Imaging Systems) goggles. NVIS refers to the radiation emitted by the gauges, displays, and buttons. It is important that the goggles can see proper light emission so that the pilot can make immediate and correct actions to ensure a safe flight. NVIS googles amplify NIR radiation, 620 to 930nm, which is too weak for human eye to see, at least 5,500 times and indirectly convert it into visible light via a green phosphor plate.

MIL-STD-3009 (and MIL-L-85762) outlines NVIS' spectral response, which means sensitivity of NVIS devices (such as NVIS goggles) for incoming light. It defines three categories of NVIS according to their spectral response performance, NVIS-A, NVIS-B and NVIS-C (NVIS-C will not be covered in this discussion).

MIL-STD-3009 describes chromaticity and radiance requirements for light emitting devices. It describes requirements by each color of light source, (NVIS Green A, B, NVIS YELLOW, NVIS WHITE) and by different light emitting devices.

NVIS-A still has sensitivity in broad visible range especially in red. NVIS-B has improved NVIS spectral response by reducing sensitivity in visible range. Ideally, NVIS has high sensitivity in infrared range while minimizing it in visible range.

It is important to note that light emitting devices need to satisfy those requirements of chromaticity and radiance, while minimizing emission of energy at wavelength of NVIS's spectral response, which is typically 620 to 930nm.

For manufactures and designers of light emitting devices such as cockpit display panels, it is critical to be able to reduce energy in IR (infrared) range of wavelength, which becomes noise when viewed through NVIS.

In order to design and manufacture high quality light emitting devices, a spectroradiometer, which covers wide wavelength (visible and infrared) and detects small noise with high accuracy is required and needs to meet the requirement of measuring spectral radiation from 380 to 930nm.

Thirty-five plus years ago, NVIS technology exclusively used photomultiplier tube scanning spectrometers. A single measurement took minutes and instruments were bulky and fragile.

The Instrument Systems DTS-140D NVIS testing spectroradiometer system can ensure that aircraft displays/dial/buttons/indicators produce the correct amount of light and color, when viewed with a pilot’s quassi-night adjusted eyes. For example, the visible light settings might be optimized for 0.5fL or about 1.7 Cd/m2. The NVIS instrument simultaneous measures the amount of NIR light present in aircraft displays/dial/buttons/indicators to ensure that the night vision googles’ are not “blinded” or saturated.

Instrument Systems is the leader in CCD based spectroradiometers manufacturing 10s of thousand for the highly demanding white led color sorting. Introducing NVIS filters and a spectral stitching technique, the instrument can accurately measure both the visible light and ensure that the NIR light compliant.

Instrument System is qualified to test instruments per the MIL standards.

Part of the Konica Minolta group Instrument System is a reliable vendor that will be here to meet your future needs.

Importance of Display Contrast Measurement in Cockpit instrumentation

Importance of Display Contrast Measurement in Cockpit Instrumentation

Interior of a modern space capsule
Interior of a modern space capsule

Cockpit instrumentation in the aerospace industry has evolved over the past decades. In the past, control panels had backlit gauges, switches, and knobs, where now you are more likely to see an array of flat panel screens. There must be a consistent light and color emitting from these panels to reduce eyestrain, ease interpretation of data, and decrease distractions. In addition, they are comfortable to view equally in daylight and as well as night. Two key measurements are Luminance (a measure of brightness) and Display Contrast (the ratio between light and dark).

Luminance (Brightness) is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light traveling in a given direction. Brightness is defined as the luminance of the brightest component (white color) and is measured in candela per square meter (cd/m2 = nit) or foot-lamberts (1fL=3.426 nits). Typically, display luminance varies from 100 nits, found in most office monitors, up to 1000 nits front projection systems.

There are varieties of units used for luminance. In most countries, the most common unit for luminance is candela/square meter (cd/m2). However, in the U.S., the most common unit is the foot-lambert (fL); 1 foot-lambert (fL) equals 1/π candela/square foot, or 3.426 cd/m2. Professionals in the industry often use the term nit (nt). 1 nit unit is equivalent to 1 cd/m2.

To measure luminance you can use a luminance meter such as the LS-150 or LS-160.

Display Contrast is the ratio between the brightest colors (in most cases white) and the darkest color (in most cases black) that the monitor is capable of producing. Where there is no industry standard in measuring contrast the generally accepted process is to measure parts of a screen and either take the average or highest white and the average or lowest black and express it in ratio form bright:dark. As an example, if a screen has bright luminance of 150 nits and a dark luminance of 1 nit the contrast ratio would be shown as 150:1.

With newer high performance, OLEDs with darker blacks are now producing much wider ratios. Hence, if a monitor can output 7500 nits with a white screen and 0.010 nits with a black screen, it would have a contrast ratio of 750,000:1. A higher contrast produces more in-depth images with better screen quality, giving richer colors that make it easier to interpret images and data. A decent LCD screen might have a contrast ratio of 1,000:1. The contrast on an OLED display is far higher, at around 4000:1, with ultra-high-end units beginning to get close to 1,000,000:1. When an OLED screen shows black, its pixels produce almost no light whatsoever.

A display's contrast ratio is one of the most important measurements of performance. In addition, it will be the most noticeable difference between two displays in a side-by-side comparison.

To measure contrast it is best to use a spectroradiometer such as the CS-2000 and CS-2000A. With high-end spectroradiometers, you can measure the darkest blacks down to super-low luminance of 0.003cd/m2 allowing measurements up to 1,000,000:1.

Why are Konica Minolta Sensing's Light Meters superior?

Why are Konica Minolta Sensing's Light Meters Superior?

Konica Minolta Sensing provides advanced optical technology that precisely measures the elements of color and light. Our light meters have become the staple in many national research and manufacturing environments, helping meet product quality and operational goals with less waste, time and effort.

Specifically, one should focus not only on an instrument that they know will last, but also one that comes backed with world class service and support. 

Konica Minolta Sensing stands behind each instrument sold by providing superior customer service support for Service & Application needs to our customers. All our customers are eligible to receive full Inspection, repair & calibration services to ensure performance and accuracy for the life of their instrument purchased through Konica Minolta Sensing. By using the Konica Minolta support services made available, you can rest assure that your overall cost for the product you purchased will indeed be lower.

What are Illuminance Meters?

Illuminance meter products are single element detectors that measure the intensity of light falling upon a surface as perceived by the human eye. It is measured in units known as foot-candles or in lux. The Konica Minolta illuminance meters are lightweight, compact, portable and provide a high level of accuracy and durability.

Why Konica Minolta Sensing Illuminance Meters?

A quality light meter must take into account the characteristics of Cosine Correction. The level of accuracy with this correction feature is very important in order to reduce measurement errors and correctly capture the illuminance as the human eye will perceive it. The accuracy of the meter is based on the response of the receptor which is proportionate to the cosine of the incidence angle in which the light is received. Konica Minolta’s Illuminance Meters T-10A/10MA is cosine corrected to within 3% of the ideal response curve.

How is this done?

The cosine corrected meter is designed in a way to prevent light from greater than 180 degrees to be included in measurement. The detector has 180-degree view and is typically used under a white diffuser dome. This is why our T-10A has an additional feature of a black rim around the white dome preventing any light, which is greater than 180 degrees, from being included and, hence influencing the measurement. This white diffuser design allows light entering it to be proportional to its angle of entrance to the meter’s overall response. 

Why is this important?

On cosine corrected meter light entering the diffuser directly above the detector at zero degrees (or straight down), has a maximum influence on measurement. But where other meters may fail the T10A separates itself from its competitors by providing a highly accurate measurement with its ability to align itself with the ideal response curve. When a meter is not cosine corrected, it will have more error included in the measurement and this can cause over or under estimation in the true value of Illuminance that is measured.

What are Luminance Meters?

Luminance meters are single element detectors that are filtered to measure photometric brightness as the human eye sees it. Luminance is measured in units known as candelas per meter square (Cd/m2) or Foot Lamberts (FtL). This type of meter measures the brightness of light that is emitted or reflected from a surface. and they are generally lightweight, compact and portable. They can usually connect to a PC using a software package which can evaluate or download the stored measurement data and to control the device.

Why Konica Minolta Sensing Luminance Meters?

An important factor in the performance of luminance meters is controlling and reducing the flare influence on a measurement. Flare factor is the degree to which the influence of light from outside the measurement area is eliminated. The Konica Minolta Luminance meters keep the flare factor to less than 1% even when the light outside the measuring area has very high luminance levels. This design allows the Luminance meter to give the level of performance expected by users of Konica Minolta instruments. The LS-160 series can also precisely measure very small (0.4mm) diameters using an optional closeup lens.

Why is this important?

An important question to ask is are we really measuring the just area we believe we are measuring? If you are unable to obtain the accuracy required of the measurement given, then you need to find the instrument that will provide this performance. If we do not have faith in the measurements, we obtain then the value of the data given will be of little use. It is important to know that the repeatability and accuracy of an instrument is consistent so that the overall cost of errors reduced to a minimum. 

When choosing an instrument, one should focus not only on an instrument that they know will last, but also one that comes backed with world class service and support. When equipment needs repairs or maintenance, your entire workflow may be disrupted. To prevent this, Konica Minolta Sensing offers rental equipment, or 48 hour expedited service to customers who can’t afford to be without their instrument for any length of time. As a result, your process remains seamless and uninterrupted.

Our dedicated staff strives to provide the best-in-class service. Customer service is our top priority. We focus on building a long-term relationship with every client and offering services that will enhance their business. At Konica Minolta, our factory-certified technicians are available to personally answer customer calls and support their hardware, software, and application needs throughout their equipment’s lifespan. Our service center is the only one in the United States that has factory trained engineers, tools, master instruments, and software required to service your Konica Minolta Sensing instrument properly. In order to ensure the accuracy of Konica Minolta products, Konica Minolta has established a system wherein the measuring instruments and other equipment used as in-house working standards are periodically re-calibrated utilizing higher standards, traceable to national standards, which have been established and are maintained by industrial standards organizations.

Konica Minolta Sensing Americas has the right light measuring equipment to fit your individual budget and needs, whether you need to measure illuminance or luminance. Light meters are not all the same as needs differ from application to application. Konica Minolta provides the style and light meter most suited to your individual needs.

At SID Vehicle Display Konica Minolta Sensing Americas, Inc. to present a sneak preview of our latest developments in imaging colorimeters and photometers

Ramsey NJ September 2019 - Konica Minolta Sensing’s Instrument Systems group is pleased to announce that we will be displaying our LumiTop 2700/4000 at SID Vehicle Display and Interfaces 2019 in Livonia, Michigan, booth #65 September 24-25, 2019. We will be also offering a sneak preview of the LumiCam B generation; our latest addition to our imaging colorimeters and photometers line.

Sneak preview at SID

The LumiCam B generation, measures the luminance and color distributions of automotive interior displays 30% faster and easier. This conveniently compact system with a 25% smaller footprint includes new software allowing for controlled, motorized aperture and focus features which allows for both easier and faster measurement setups. To see the debut of the LumiCam B generation model visit Konica Minolta Sensing at SID Vehicle Display table #65.

Lab specs meet production speed with easy integration

On display will also be the LumiTop 2700/4000. This colorimeter combines accuracy with speed through its easy integration into existing production lines, 3-in-1 measurement solutions and the detailed spectral imaging. The LumiTop 2700/4000 spectroradiometer and color meter is tailored for end-of-line (EOL) verification of the latest OEM requirements made on automotive interior displays. The spectrally optimized, high-resolution 2D camera enables fast and precise testing with a total production line testing time of less than 1 second per display!

All in one solution

With LumiTop you can organize different test applications on a single test station, e.g., the evaluation of uniformity and Mura effects, the analysis of white balance, color gamut or contrast ratio, or the measurement of flicker. The LumiTop in combination with the CAS spectrometer provides an ideal measurement solution for a fast EOL testing of main OEM display quality requirements, such as color, uniformity, gamma, and dot defects. The testing time for a complete EOL assessment can be decreased considerably to less than 15 seconds per display.

The LumiTop systems are perfect for use in display production lines or quality control, where the benefits and capabilities of both the accurate spot measurement of spectroradiometers and the lateral resolution of camera measurements are highly valued. Instrument Systems offers the LumiTop in two variants: the LumiTop 2700 with a resolution of 6.1 megapixels and the LumiTop 4000 with a higher resolution of 12 megapixels.

New: LumiTop Ultra-High Resolution

The new ultra-high resolution LumiTop allows pixel level analysis of complete displays in one single shot. This innovative measurement device is thus perfect for fast and accurate quality control and pixel calibration of OLEDs or Micro-LED displays in production lines. An integrated pixel shift mechanism suppresses demosaicing artifacts by true full color measurements and even provides increased resolution of 600 megapixels per color channel, which makes this device also very valuable for research and development.

On-site presentation at SID-Vehicle Display

An onsite presentation entitled, "End of Line Testing of Recent Display Quality Standards" will be given by our fellow colleagues from Instrument Systems GmbH on Wednesday, September 25th from 9:15 am-9:35 am.

Further information can be found on our website: https://sensing.konicaminolta.us/us/products/lumitop-2700-lumitop-4000-spectrally-optimized-luminance-and-color-measurement-camera/

Figure: Spectrally enhanced imaging colorimeter-combines accuracy of CAS140CT/D with the advantages of imaging colorimetery.

Company profile of Konica Minolta Sensing Americas

Konica Minolta Sensing Americas, Inc. (KMSA), a wholly owned subsidiary of Konica Minolta, Inc., Sensing Business Unit is recognized as the international leader of industrial color and light measurement. The company is responsible for product lines that continuously revolutionize how visual perception is measured by the world.
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas' Ramsey, New Jersey corporate headquarters is fully equipped with a state of the art service center, technical support center, and a focused sales force dedicated to both the North American and South American regions. When it comes to color and light measurement, the world looks to Konica Minolta.
USA Contact:

Peter Roos, Marketing Manager
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas
Phone: (201) 236-4300
Toll Free: (888) 473-2625
Web: https://sensing.konicaminolta.us/us
Email: marketing.sus@konicaminolta.com

Company profile of Instrument Systems GmbH.

Instrument Systems, founded in 1986 and based in Munich, Germany, develops, manufactures and markets turnkey solutions
for light measurement. Its main products are high-performance array spectroradiometers, imaging photometers and colorimeters. Key applications are LED/SSL and display measurement, as well as spectroradiometry and photometry. Today Instrument Systems is one of the world’s leading manufacturers in this area. Products of the Optronics line for the automotive industry and transport sector are developed and marketed at the Berlin location. Since 2012 Instrument Systems has been a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Konica Minolta Group.
International Contact:

Dr. Karin Duhnke, Instrument Systems GmbH
Web: https://www.instrumentsystems.com
Email: duhnke@instrumentsystems.com

Terms and product names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders and are hereby acknowledged.