Hyperspectral imaging for art restoration

Behind the scenes scanning works of art

Preservation of cultural legacies like paintings, manuscripts, maps, and old photos through documenting and transforming in to digital formats for archives, research, and conservation or for display is increasingly important. Museum laboratories and university researchers are using a wider range of analytical instruments to study collections. There is need to study, materials like pigments, dyes, and binding media not only to observe possible degradation or changes due to age or environmental conditions, but also for to reveal the artist’s painting technique and methods used in creating the work of art.

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is gaining wide acceptance as a valuable optical tool for art archiving and restoration. HSI is an optical instrument used to measure the reflectance or transmittance of light by materials and the present the results in the form of spectral curves. HSI’s non-invasive and non-destructive imaging technique is safe for even the most fragile samples. Used remotely to scan all parts of the sample with high spatial resolution (down to 15-µm pixel size). HSI records both spatial and spectral information, for use in classifying chemical, physical and/or biological properties of the object.

In visible range, it gives improved precision in color measurement for recording pigment color-change, which is essential for conservation. In near infrared HSI can reveal information hidden behind the outer layer or written text that has deteriorated and faded under environmental conditions. Besides, fluorescence investigation are prone to highlight different solvent and binders.

Specim provides instrumentation for different spectral regions. Each spectral camera enables the user to emphasize different properties of the sample. Our art scanner can be equipped with VIS, VNIR, NIR or SWIR camera.

Success story: Composition by Henryk Stazewski, 1957, oil
For her doctoral thesis, Agata Warszewska-Kolodziej studied the oil painting “Composition” by the famous Avant-garde Polish painter Henryk Stazewski. An earlier X-ray scan showed that behind the visible painting a sketch or earlier painting existed. When measured using Specim’s spectral scanning instrument for SWIR region the painting revealed far more information on the underlying work. “We were able to exactly determine how the painted over composition looked like” says Agata.


Specim-Art-Video

Art analysis goes mobile

Analyzing and conserving art with the help of Specim IQ, the first portable hyperspectral imaging system. Marcello Picollo, Researcher from Nello Carrara, IFAC-CNR shows how it’s done using the Specim IQ.


Color-control-of-electronic-goods

Advanced Color and appearance control of electrical goods

We surround ourselves with electrical goods. We refer to large household appliances as white goods since, traditionally, most appliances have a white enamel finish. Black goods refer to TVs, cameras, and audio devices. Today, white and black predominance has given way to colorful and more sophisticated finishes. While classic colors like white and black continue to attract the most attention, newer shades created by metallic and stainless steel and chrome are gaining popularity. Combining shades with different textures such as high gloss or matt finishes add a hint of drama to a product’s aesthetic. Learn how to control these colors in our white paper.


Liquid Color Test With Spectrophotometer

Pharmaceutical Liquid Color Testing with a Spectrophotometer

The improvements made over the years to measuring liquid color have elevated visual-based methods to a markedly greater reliability level thanks to today’s advanced color measurement process. Where once an array of physical samples had to be prepared manually with differing levels of dilution and then compared against a set of standards via the human visual system, today’s spectrophotometers take the guesswork–and tedious preparation–out of the equation.


building with bright consistent color

Factors to Consider When Evaluating a Building's Quality

There are several factors to consider when evaluating the quality of a building. Color is one of the first things that a person sees, and mismatched colors can be quickly apparent. If two sides in the building do not match due to different paint batches, or the noticeable repainting of a side or part of the siding to cover a repair, quality becomes quickly suspect. With vinyl siding, even slightly out of specification colors can make a house look like a checkerboard; the seams become obvious everyone wants seamless color in the siding. Roof tiles should match even after replacement due to age or storm damage. The window frames and sashes need to match even if they come from different manufacturing lots. The same applies to glass office towners in the city, the windows must look the same if viewed close up or from a distance, and a slight color difference in a glass panel will be noticeable and degrade the appearance of the building.

The CM-5 spectrophotometer is the ideal instrument for measuring and analyzing color in building materials. The CM-5 can perform a wide range of measurements whether the material is solid, powder, paste, or liquid.

If you are measuring a solid material, place the sample on top of CM-5's measurement aperture, much like putting a sample on a scale to get its weight. If a sample is a grout or stucco in a paste form, use a petri dish. Fill the petri dish with the sample, place it on the measurement aperture, and take a measurement.

In addition, the CM-5 has transmission measurement capability for the measurement of liquid and transparent materials such as glass and films. Place a sample in the transmittance measurement chamber of the instrument to take measurements. Measurements are quick, with just a few seconds to output and save spectral data. For glass and other transparent material analysis, besides color data, the CM-5 provides valuable data such as spectral transparency, absorbance, and haze.

With broad measurement capability for various materials, The CM-5 is the must-have instrument for the color quality of building materials in your lab.


Why Use Machine Learning Vision for Part-In-Motion Quality Inspections

Why Use Machine Learning Vision for Part-In-Motion Quality Inspections

Quality and throughput have always guided manufacturers to invest in new processes and technology. The influx of advanced Industry 4.0 technology offers manufacturing leaders many choices—like 3D printing, artificial intelligence, and machine learning.

Machine Learning (ML) is gaining popularity across various industries and applications, such as automotive, aerospace, medical, and electronics. It exceeds operational needs and provides tangible benefits such as effective instantaneous inspections and traceability.

The design of Eines Vision System's digital software technology is explicitly for part-in-motion quality inspections. Through its advanced machine learning algorithms, Eines can intelligently perform part confirmations, calculations, and simulations of measurements. At the same time, the inspected surface remains moving, like parts that reside on a conveyor line, lifts, automated guided vehicles, and assembly belts.

There are three main types of error-proofing environments to apply advanced machine learning vision quality inspections common to automotive production: stop station scanning, place part-in-fixture scanning, and part-in-motion dynamic scanning measurements. Of the three, part-in-motion dynamic inspection delivers the most benefits, expanding past typical basic visual inspection to dynamic tracking of parts for critical measurements.

In final assembly vehicle manufacturing, there are three preeminent applications using best-practice vision technology for dynamic part-in-motion measurements: gap n flush measurements, surface coatings integrity inspections, and part present validation verifications.
Gap N Flush Measurements (sometimes referred to as fit n finish): gap n flush is the dimensional relationship between mating parts such as doors, trunks, fenders, liftgate, and hoods. Precise measurement is critical for line fitters performing operational alignment to reduce wind noise and improve vehicle aesthetics.

Surface/Coatings Inspections: automotive manufacturers have only seconds to inspect surface conditions for splits, cracks, scratches, dents, dirt, orange peel, fishers, and blisters. Once in the showroom, customers have hours to inspect surface integrity. Surface imperfections can cause future warranty issues; therefore, detection data metrics needs to be instant to perform sanding and polishing before final vehicle acceptance.

Part Present Verification: Commonly known as a Poka-yoke process designed to avoid manufacturing mistakes. Essential to best practices, advanced vision technology can detect missing clips, nuts, emblems, badges, match vehicle style, mirrors, bumper features, or color validation with customer orders.

Providing the line technicians' actionable data analytics generated from quality inspection metrics. The data dashboard consists of defects displayed within multiple digital visual feedback interfaces such as tablet-based, wearable, and fixed monitor-based displays.

gap n flush measurements

Some factories attempt to test and simulate process designs with digital twin models. The digital twin illustrates dynamic simulations of detections, what an operation would look like and how a worker should perform it. It allows for a complete look at processes and traceability to identify specific problems within the operation. It is also deployable on an enterprise level, easily interfacing with common cloud platforms to create custom dashboards and analytics.

Successful manufacturing processes can make every second and every penny count in their operations. Tunnel-style inspection systems harness the production line's speed and rapid data transfer to provide a minimal maintenance high throughput system. This system reduces the risk of downtime while operating very self-sufficient when integrated into existing plant power and communication networks.

For many years, part-in-motion dimensional control inspections have challenged the quality metrics for high production automotive operations. Eines' advanced vision software configured to the customer's specifications deployed through tunnel-style systems solves the problem of accurate error proofing for part-in-motion inspections.

To find out more about dynamic digital inspection systems, please contact our team or request an application assessment.


color formulation software colibri

Using Computer Software for Color Formulation

When creating or designing a new color, manufacturers will need to formulate the color for production. This color formulation process requires trial and error to achieve the ideal close match to the target color. This process, when done manually, could mean repeated efforts until you get satisfactory color.

Computer software for color formulation, such as Colibri®, will save quite a number of trial and error steps and closely match to new color with minimum attempts. The color formulation software saves time of color formulation and saves the cost of waste produced in the formulation process. It will be a significant saving in the process. A formulator needs to create samples of their product ingredients and measure them with the software for material characterization. In the coatings industry, samples are generally drawdowns (letdowns) of the pigments and base material at different concentrations.

At Konica Minolta, our application engineers work with customers to ensure they have the information to create these required samples for material characterization. This step is critical to the formulation process to calculate recipes to match the new color from the ingredients defined in the colorant set. Once developed, you can use the recipe to reproduce the color accurately whenever needed later.

Opacity is crucial to achieving good hiding power for a coating. In Colibri® ColorMatch, you can set a target opacity, and the software will generate recipes with the smallest pigment loading or pigment cost to achieve the hiding requirements. The color and opacity of translucent samples can also be calculated for different substrates, should the coating be designed specifically for a different material than a contrast card.

Colibri ColorMatch® characterizes the binder (base material) separately from other ingredients. Therefore, you only need to create calibration samples for the new binder with white pigment and black pigment to create effective recipes. Calibration samples for the other pigments are not required. This is a great time saving for paints and coatings applications when the resins are identical or similar and using different kinds and or amounts of additives to create other bases or product lines.

With the constant arrival of new paint colors and a wide variety of paint types to manage, paint material also needs to shift to meet the latest environmental requirement as paint-manufacturing technology evolves. An advanced color formulation software can benefit efficiency and stability to paint manufacturers.


The Steps to Consistent Color in Plastics

Expert color duplication at every stage of production is vital to quality control, cost, client satisfaction and retention. As with color measurement of all materials. accurate color control of plastics depends on precision and consistency. This is the process for achieving optimum color control...


Example of cosmetic foundation

Achieving a Standard Color in Cosmetic Foundations

Foundation has been a part of our lives for thousands of years. Once known as “face painting”, foundation has transformed through the ages dating as far back to ancient Greece and Rome, and maybe even further. Through many variations, including some with toxic ingredients such as white lead and mercury, “foundation” wasn’t known as such, until “The Father of Make-Up”, Max Factor, named it and included it in his product portfolio in 1920.

Sadly, for years, there were only limited shades of foundations. However and happily, in today’s world, there are many different shades, made with different ingredients to appeal not only to a consumer’s eye for color but potentially to their social consciousness as well. With the increase in the pallet of available foundation hue and ingredients, it is more important than ever to sustain proper color control. A properly maintained spectrophotometer allows manufacturers to ensure consistent colors from concept/design to R&D, to production, and finally to the consumer. Products such as the Konica Minolta Sensing's CM-5 or CM-700d would be essential in color consistency in foundation.

By developing a standard color for each shade of foundation, manufacturers can subjectively (visually) assure acceptability with the use of a light booth, which offers standardized viewing conditions, and can replicate how the foundation will look in the store as well as in the home, office, and outdoors. In combination with that technique, the use of a spectrophotometer (like the CM-5 and CM-700d mentioned above) will allow for objective measurements that allow quantitative data for any samples for color quality control and communication. By using this measured information, be it spectral data or tristimulus data (such as CIEL*a*b*), any non-acceptable deviation from the standard come to be quickly and easily communicated to the appropriate personnel and the proper corrective action taken. Catching incorrectly colored products early in the production cycle saves manufacturers time and money, and drastically reduces rework and waste.

This process is especially beneficial when using synthetic versus organic ingredients (or vice versa), all while trying to attain the same color. The base colorants in the foundation will likely react differently with diverse ingredients, giving varying results. The use of a spectrophotometer will give the applicable personnel quantitative data that is likely to be undetected by the human eye due to the variation of ingredients. This will allow for proper adjustments to be made with the base colorants to achieve the desired, standard color of the foundation.

Using the objective data a spectrophotometer provides, staff can effectively and precisely communicate the desired color from various locations, with R&D potentially in one country, and production in another. With a proper color quality control process in place, foundation and make-up companies can assure customers that their products will look as good as promised, and will stay the same color from their first purchase, onward.


Artificial Intelligence A Paint Shop Automation ‘Best Practice”

Artificial Intelligence A Paint Shop Automation Best Practice

Today operations, quality, and manufacturing managers have a choice when facing the dilemma in error-proofing efforts. Repeat methodologies from the past or go forward using Artificial Intelligence (AI).

Managers confront the question - do we adopt new technologies or continue with the status quo? Today's automakers face one issue: advanced digital automation must be flexible, robust, affordable, and efficient when installed on moving lines. That generally includes a rollout of lean principles integrated with digital automation. Without Artificial Intelligence (AI) integrated into the factory software, measuring defects on a moving line will pose serious problems in repeatability and accuracy.

According to the FMEA (Modal Analysis of Failures and Effects) inspection process guidelines, the "human visual inspection" is effective or reliable in only 80% of cases based on the observation of multiple factors such as different points of sight or operators, reduced cycle time, visual fatigue and defects not detected by the human eye, among others things.

Human intelligence is summarily the mental quality that consists of learning from experience, adapting to new situations, understanding and handling abstract concepts, and using knowledge to manipulate one's environment.

Artificial intelligence (AI) uses data and algorithms to replicate human decision/thinking ability. AI offers scalability while taking a good quality process and making it "best practice." This while providing manufacturing intelligence and innovation to achieve today's tightened customer quality requirements. (I.e., IATF-16949)

Latest trends in manufacturing and production technologies, including augmented reality, artificial intelligence, and industrial robotics, offer ways to increase productivity, improve quality and reduce cost by automating complex and monotonous tasks. Likewise, surface simulation technologies can leverage real-time data and mirror the physical world in virtual models, including machines, products, and humans.

Eines Vehicle Scanning Simulation (EVSS) optimizes the number of cameras used and reduces implementation time as configuration actions can occur offline. EVSS also allows for pre-planning multiple configurations for all current and future car bodies. Eines has developed a tool to simulate the whole inspection process utilizing the vehicle 3D model outer skin and support all required camera 3D data calibration to provide accurate coordinates of subsequent process steps and precise vectors for auto-repair processes.

AI is a top to bottom quality control concept streamlining your relationships with suppliers and customers. Strengthening AI algorithms to mimic human intelligence increases the production process's speed, flexibility, and efficiency, thus leading to a broader range of products.
The EINES Esφi Moving Line Surface Quality Production Scanner. The original moving line integrated AI system can scan vehicles on a moving line with short cycle times, no interruption of production tact times, and low maintenance, resulting in higher productivity and efficiency.